A pure land-race from Northwest Pakistan, collected in Peshawar District, which borders the famous Hindu Kush hashish-producing valleys of the Tribal Agencies and, beyond them, southern Afghanistan. Peshawar District is mostly ethnically Pashtun (Afghan). Nearby are the ruins of Pushkalavati, once the capital city of Gandhara, a region which was likely an ancient centre of cannabis culture.
Land-races from this region typically exhibit large leaves, usually with broad leaflets, which indicates their long history of domestication. This foliage architecture is also common in China, where land-races have undergone millennia of selection for fibre and seed production. Gandhara is probably among the earliest centres in which Cannabis was bred for high-THC flowers.
The Gandhara region strongly influenced the Buddhist and medicinal culture of early China. Early Chinese texts that refer to esoteric practices involving cannabis may tell us something about its uses in ancient Pakistan and Afghanistan.